This paper reviews the status of weather and climate services in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Worldwide, the accuracy and value of weather and climate services are rising, bringing great economic benefits. However, many national hydrometeorological services (NMHSs) in Europe and Central Asia are in decline. As a result, these potential gains are often missed. Much more could be done to mitigate weather disasters, support the productivity of smallholding and commercial agriculture, conserve energy, and promote safe aviation and transport by road and rail. Although NMHS capacity deficiencies are serious, they could be significantly remedied by relatively modest—but sustained— investments. Economic assessments indicate substantial benefit to-cost ratios for such initiatives.