This presentation was given at the 22nd World’s Poultry Congress, in Istanbul, Turkey, 9 June 2004. Poverty is still unacceptably common, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Poultry is the fastest growing sub-sector of livestock farming, at all scales; at the backyard scale, poultry can contribute greatly to poverty alleviation and reduction strategies. At the industrial level, poultry is the most efficient response to rising demand for affordable protein and offers some employment opportunities. There is little competition between the two sectors, but ample opportunity for large scale poultry farming to support the backyard industry.