The main objective of the Nile Basin Focal Project (NBFP) is to identify high potential water management interventions for increasing water productivity and poverty alleviation in different parts of the basin, to inform development activities and further research. A major premise of the project is that there are opportunities to manage water and use it better for agriculture to improve productivity, food security, and livelihoods. While there is much focus by governments on the scarce river water resource, other opportunities can be found when rainfall is considered as the main water resource in the Nile. Livestock, fisheries and aquaculture have long been important to people along the Nile but do not feature in the water discourse. Livestock is essential for both cultural and dietary use across the entire Nile, and livestock management practices have important implications for water resources management. The potential to develop fisheries along the Nile River is very promising, especially in underdeveloped areas such as Southern Sudan.