Pests and diseases are major causes of yield losses in crops around the world, but they have been given very little attention in agroforestry. As more farmers plant trees on their farms, there is a significant potential for an escalation in traditional pest and disease problems as they are provided with more hosts, or the development of new pests and diseases that could hinder agroforestry development. Until now pest management has relied on traditional knowledge. There needs to be more awareness of pests and diseases in agroforestry, and to undertake pest risk assessments before scaling up successful agroforestry options. This will help in the eventual development of strategies for minimizing pest damage in agroforestry systems.