P. K. Aggarwal, Mannava V. K. Sivakumar
South Asia is home to nearly 22% of the world’s population, including 40% of the world’s poor. Agriculture plays a critical role in terms of employment and livelihood security for a large majority of people in all countries of the region. The region is prone to climatic extremes, which regularly impact agricultural production and farmers’ livelihood. Himalayan glaciers, a major source of water for the rivers in the Indo-Gangetic plains, are projected to significantly recede in future that could affect food and livelihood security of millions of people in Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. Climate change is further projected to cause a 10–40% loss in crop production in the region by the end of the century. The increased climatic variability in future would further increase production variability. Producing enough food for the increasing population in a background of reducing resources in a changing climate scenario, while minimizing environmental degradation is a challenging task. Simple adaptation strategies such as changes in planting dates and varieties could help in reducing impacts of climate change to a limited extent.