The original objective of the project was to analyse the uptake and impact of veterinary services to the poor. However, as the project progressed, it was clear that the contribution and outputs of the project would both meet and exceed its original mandate. Improving the livelihoods of the poor through enhanced animal health is only one avenue to increase the wellbeing of the poor. Indeed, the project offers empirical evidence, methods and methodologies to identify issues and inform actions regarding all aspects of livestock-based livelihoods. In this manner, the new goal of the project is to create a new paradigm of livestock development, which supports the actions and agency of the poor while addressing key constraints.