This paper discusses the issue of water scarcity, which is a major constraint on rain-fed agriculture. As well as being a consequence of low or erratic rainfall, the perceived water scarcity may be caused by choices made by the farmer, e.g. of a crop or variety sensitive to water stress, or by inadequate management of available water from rainfall. Inappropriate practices in a particular context can have a dramatic affect on water resources management and soil moisture availability. In order to minimize the impact of drought, soil needs to capture the rainwater that falls on it, store as much of that water as possible for future plant use, and allow plant roots to penetrate and proliferate. Problems with or constraints on one or several of these conditions cause soil moisture to be a major limiting factor for crop growth.