The emphasis of this report is on harnessing mitigation finance for smallholder agriculture. Section 1 provides an overview of the main international climate finance mechanisms and sources. Section 2 describes some of the main barriers to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by smallholders. Section 3 describes what policies and instruments can be used to increase smallholder access to finance and investment. Section 4 investigates how climate finance can support the policies identified in the previous section to foster the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices by smallholders. The conclusion is that climate finance can be used as an instrument to overcome barriers to smallholders’ adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by accessing new funds, designing new disbursement mechanisms, and forging new partnerships.