The agriculture sectors¹ are facing the enormous challenge of feeding the world’s growing population in the midst of climate change. The impacts of increased climate variability, as well as more extreme and frequent weather events, are jeopardizing agriculture, livelihoods and infrastructure. Farmers, pastoralists, fisherfolk and community foresters depend on activities that are intimately and inextricably linked to climate. They are the ones who are affected the most by climate change yet are the least able to cope. A profound transformation in the global food and agriculture system is needed to ensure that the adaptive capacity of smallholders is enhanced and that countries transition toward low emission and climate-resilient development. However, time is important. Action must be taken now in order to secure sustainable food and agriculture for the future. FAO is helping to reorient food and agricultural systems in countries most exposed to climate risks, with a clear focus on supporting smallholders. This booklet provides a summary of FAO’s holistic approach to the adaptation of agriculture.