Agriculture needs to feed 9 billion people by 2050. This will require a 70–100% increase in food production (Godfray et al. 2010). Given climate change, a new kind of agriculture is therefore essential, one that must meet the triple challenge not only of ensuring food security, but also of adapting to future climate change and contributing to climate change mitigation. This brief examines what actions can be taken to achieve food security and economic development while halting deforestation. We make recommendations about how climate change mitigation can be achieved in an integrated way across the agricultural and forestry sectors.