Intradermal inoculation of sheep with culture-derived metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma Congo Republiclense resulted in the development of localized skin reactions (chancres) and enlargement of the draining lymph nodes 7 days after infection. Changes in the expression of surface antigens of lymphocytes in lymph leaving the affected skin reactions and in the associated lymph nodes were monitored by cannulating the afferent and efferent lymphtic ducts. Trypanosomes appeared in afferent and efferent lymph 3 to 5 days after infection and persisted even as the chancres regressed. The cellular output in both afferent and efferent lymph increased markedly after the onset of parasitosis. Sequential analysis of the phenotypes of lymphocytes by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry revealed that in afferent lymph draining the chancre there was an early response which was due to an increase in T cells, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ cells; however, as the chancres regressed there was an increase in lymphoblasts and surface immunoglobulin-bearing cells. In contrast, in the efferent lymph, the increase in lymphocytes was due predominantly to a higher number of cells bearing surface immunoglobulins.