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The relationship between antifungal diene levels and fungal inhibition during quiescent infection of unripe avocado fruits by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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Type of Publication:
Articles & Journals
Focus Region:
Middle East & North Africa
Focus Topic:
Health & Diseases
Type of Risk:
Biological & environmental
Kobiler, I.; Plumbley, R.A.; Prusky, D.
The Volcani Center, Israel

Quantitative changes in the antifungal compound, 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12.15-diene, in freshly harvested avocado fruits during the initial stages of fungal development were investigated to determine the possible involvement of the compound in quiescent infections of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The concentration of the antifungal compound in the peel decreased to subfungitoxic concentrations 16 h after harvest. Fifty-six hours later the antifungal diene had increased to c. 3800 ??g/g fresh weight. At this stage, germinated appressoria had penetrated the cuticle to the epidermal cells but no fungal development was observed until 7 days later when the concentration of the diene had decreased to 100-110??g/g fresh weight. Following a dip treatment at 55??C for 5 or 10 min, the antifungal diene concentration decreased as in the controls, but it remained at subfungitoxic concentrations for a longer period enabling fungal development and early symptom expression.

The concentration of the diene in the flesh of freshly harvested fruit decreased to 120 ??g/g fresh weight 24 h after harvest. Inoculation of peeled fruits with spores of C. gloeosporioides showed germination without appressoria formation and symptom expression occurred 24-48 h later. Symptom expression was delayed if fruits were inoculated after coating the flesh with epicuticular wax extracts or if the flesh was inoculated 3 days after harvest when the antifungal diene had regained a fungitoxic concentration. Disease symptoms were expressed in soft fruits containing subfungitoxic concentrations of the diene.

We conclude that the diene in unripe avocado fruits inhibits fungal development of germinated appressoria or conidia. The quiescent structure of C. gloeosporioides in unripe avocado fruit is a subcuticular hypha.