This scoping study assesses the opportunities and constraints for future economic development of sustainable vegetable seed businesses in eastern and southern Africa. It is the foundation of, and a necessary initial step to, a planned future initiative for producing high quality seed of vegetable varieties bred to meet the needs of smallholder farmers in this region, within the broader needs of the horticultural sector. The study focuses on Kenya due to the importance of the horticultural sector and the wealth of information available from other studies. It also assesses, where information is available, aspects of the vegetable sector in neighboring countries in the region. Where relevant, other initiatives to improve vegetable production within the region and in countries outside the region are also considered.