Particles resembling those of geminiviruses were found by immunosorbent electron microscopy in extracts of plants infected in India with bhendi yellow vein mosaic, croton yellow vein mosaic, dolichos yellow mosaic, horsegram yellow mosaic, Indian cassava mosaic and tomato leaf curl viruses. All these viruses were transmitted by Bemisia tabaci whiteflies, all reacted with at least one out of ten monoclonal antibodies to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), and all reacted with a probe for ACMV DNA-1, but scarcely or not at all with a full-length probe for ACMV DNA-2. Most of the viruses were distinguished by their host ranges when transmitted by whiteflies, and the rest could be distinguished by their pattern of reactions with the panel of monoclonal antibodies. Horsegram yellow mosaic virus was distinguished from Thailand mung bean yellow mosaic virus by its lack of sap transmissibility, ability to infect Arachis hypogaea, failure to react strongly with the probe for ACMV DNA-2 and its pattern of reactions with the monoclonal antibodies.
Structures resembling a ???string of pearls???, but not geminate particles, were found in leaf extracts containing malvastrum yellow vein mosaic virus. Such extracts reacted with two of the monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that this whitefly-transmitted virus too is a geminivirus. All seven viruses from India can therefore be considered whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses.