The Agricultural sector has the greatest potential for improving rural livelihood and eradicating the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP). By the end of the GTP period, the government seeks to double yields of smallholder farmers largely by scaling-up best practices, producing high value crops, expanding irrigation development and promoting natural resource conservation. A substantial increase in agricultural yield and output is expected to be realized by implementing interventions aimed at speeding-up the assimilation and adoption of improved agricultural technology and management practices of the f these strategies on productivity and production are analyzed to determine their adequacy in meeting the GTP production targets. The analysis shows that while production and productivity targets are generally achievable, the country needs to adopt more cost-effective, innovative and modern approaches to agricultural knowledge management and reform and modernize its agricultural extension system. These new approaches, concepts and tools for effective knowledge management in the agricultural sector are presented. Case studies on how these approaches have been designed and implemented in selected countries in Africa and Asia to increase production and productivity of smallholder farmers are presented. Ethiopia can draw on these experiences to develop and utilize ICT-based knowledge management techniques to implement robust strategies and intervention to transform its agricultural sector and double production and productivity of smallholder farmers as envisaged in the GTP.