The Kenyan horticulture sector is now the country’s second-highest earner of foreign exchange. Unlike many other exporters, the sector relies heavily on small-scale producers, with over 50,000 farmers producing approximately 50% of the product. For these small-scale farmers, export crops provide a vital source of income but pest problems are a constant threat to the crop. Traditionally, chemical control of pests and diseases has been advocated. Increases in the cost of chemical pesticides, pest resistance, toxicity problems, and social concerns, combined with European legislation and standards on pesticide residues have, however, forced the Kenyan horticulture exporters to rethink their approach to pest management.