This document is part of a series of documents that aim to provide comprehensive overviews of the economic (macro- and micro-) and institutional environment of countries that have been seriously affected by HPAI, Viet Nam being one of the most seriously affected. The document is divided into six sections. The first section deals with Viet Nam’s economy, population, labour force, agriculture and livestock sector. The second section deals with its poultry industry, specifically chicken and duck production systems, as well as marketing and trade. The third section is dedicated to the role of poultry in rural livelihoods, their contribution to income and nutrition as well as consumer preferences for poultry meats. The fourth section reviews the course of the HPAI epidemic in Viet Nam and the structure of the national animal health systems and instituted control measures. The fifth section attempts to systematically compile the available information on the direct and indirect impacts of HPAI and HPAI control measures. Finally, the last section concludes and highlights the need for a second generation of HPAI control measures.