A whitefly-transmissible stock isolate of Indian tomato leaf curl geminivirus (ITmLCV) was cultured in graft-inoculated tomato plants and its particles purified from chloroform-clarified extracts in citrate buffer by precipitation with 70 g/litre polyethylene glycol, ultracentrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Contaminating helical filaments were eliminated by banding in caesium sulphate gradients. ITmLCV particles had the shape typical for geminiviruses, measured c. 30 ?? 20 nm and contained a single major protein of estimated mol. wt c. 32 000. They reacted in immunosorbent electron microscopy with antisera to four other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. ITmLCV reacted with one out of 17 monoclonal antibodies specific for different epitopes in the particle protein of African cassava mosaic geminivirus and five or six out of 10 monoclonal antibodies to the particle protein of Indian cassava mosaic geminivirus. Virus isolates from tomato at nine locations in Karnataka State showed only slight differences in epitope profile, and isolates from four weed species in tomato fields were similar or identical to those from tomato.