The goal of this DfID-funded project was to improve rural livelihoods through accelerated adoption of resource-conserving technologies (RCTs). Farmers in 2 villages in Sheikhupura district and 2 villages in Sialkot district were assigned to one of four socio-economic groups, i.e. landless, marginal, subsistence or food surplus/cash cropping, depending on their ability to take the risks involved in adopting new technologies. Data collected under Output 1 indicated that all socio-economic groups have benefited from using new varieties of rice (Basmati Super and Basmati 2000) and wheat (Pak 81, Lailpur 33 and Auquab) in terms of improved yields and economic return. Many farmers were confused regarding the benefits of using the DfID/New Zealand/Asian Development Bank-sponsored zero-till drill for wheat production, due to the fact that the two main government departments responsible for promoting its use (On Farm Water Management and Agricultural Extension) are in disagreement over its effectiveness. Project farmers who had experienced using the zero-till drill complained of soil compaction, increased pest problems in the following rice crop and lack of back-up support from the Department of Agricultural Extension.