Twenty years ago, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture’s Dr. I. Okezie Akobundu clarified the gap between crop yields on research farms in sub-Saharan Africa and those on smallholder farms — weeds (Akobundu 1991). Today, farmers in Africa continue to realize 70% lower yields than researchers on weeded plots. Reasons for the lag include weeding at suboptimal times and labor constraints. Most significantly, 90% of acres on large plantation farms in sub-Saharan Africa are treated with herbicides, the same percent as on all crop lands in developed countries, while only 5% of smallholder farm acres receive herbicide applications.