Monitoring in banana pest management is an important activity for commercial and/or smallholder banana production. It is required to detect the occurrence of newly introduced pest species, those which have previously been of minor importance, and for new variants which pose particular threats. Monitoring is important strategically in providing early warning of problems that may arise, and in some cases as a basis for pest management decisions within a cropping season. Information from monitoring can also serve public policy purposes, such as the need for eradication programmes and quarantine. These different facets of monitoring are illustrated with reference to selected banana pests: the fungal pathogens causing leaf spots (Mycosphaerella spp.) and Panama disease (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense); parasitic nematodes (especially Radopholus similis) and the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorditus).