In Tanzania, banana xanthomonas wilt was first reported in the Kagera region of north west Tanzania in September 2005. Spread has continued, but not to other major banana growing areas. In Kenya, the disease was first reported in September 2006 in the Teso District of western Kenya. Spread has since been reported as slow. In Burundi, the disease was first observed during October 2006. Bacterial cultures were isolated from diseased racemes from Tanzania and Burundi, and from Kenya. All cultures were identified to species level using X. vasicola-specific primers and partial sequencing of the gyrase B gene. The identification of X. campestris pv. musacearum isolates from Burundi and Kenya was further confirmed using X. vasicola-specific primers.