The purpose of the project was to identify the major social and bioeconomic constraints to the introduction of aquaculture into farmer-managed irrigation systems and then to develop and promote effective approaches to aquaculture. The project focused on two areas of the Sub-Continent that suffer water stress and where aquaculture has little tradition, up-state Karnataka, India and Northwest province Sri Lanka. The project aimed to deliver an assessment of the potential for aquaculture within available farmer-managed irrigation systems through a series of situation assessment activities. This culminated in several physical systems (open wells and check dams) being identified for their potential in Raichur District, Karnataka and the small seasonal tanks that are numerous in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. A range of research methods and tools were also identified and tested for developing appropriate aquaculture interventions. These were based on participatory approaches that sought to understand the needs of, and resources accessible to, the poor.