Standards are required for efficient trade in agricultural commodities and products. In this context the term standards to taken to encompass the term grades. Potential benefits for developing countries conforming to standards include: reduced transaction costs, access to premium markets, increased earnings, more stable market, reduced post-harvest deterioration, improved health and safety of workers and consumers, and greater provision for worker welfare and environmental issues. There is potential for producers to access the growing local and regional food aid market. The potential negative aspects of standards include: the creation of non-tariff trade barriers, costs of conformity are significant and possibly prohibitive, substandard food that cannot be exported being consumed by the poor, the potential for malpractice and the possible marginalisation of small-scale producers.