The central government of China has in recent years allocated special funding for activities collectively known as comprehensive agricultural development (CAD). These activities aim to support agricultural and ecological development, strengthen agricultural infrastructure, ensure national food security, advance agro-processing production, and increase the income of farmers.
CAD’s organizational structure is well established, with offices at the provincial, municipal, and county levels. It is led by the national government, while farmers are the major players on the ground. The State Office of Comprehensive Agricultural Development is a Department within the Ministry of Finance, and most of the comprehensive agricultural institutions at the provincial, prefecture, and county level are affiliated to the government finance sector. A working mechanism is in place, based on mutual coordination and support of various sectors, including finance, agriculture, water resources, forestry, and banks, as well as the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). Since CAD’s implementation in 1988, its fiscal investment has gradually increased year after year. In 2010, the central government?s annual budgetary fund for CAD reached RMB 19 billion (US$2.9 billion1) and the scope of the program covered 3 municipalities and 2,167 counties in 31 provinces and autonomous regions, as well as large Land Reclamation Bureaus in Xinjiang, Heilongjiang and Guangdong.