Alongside expected climate changes, the LMB is undergoing significant socio-economic and physical changes affecting livestock production, consumption, and livelihoods. Increases in household incomes have led to increasing domestic demand for livestock-derived products. Globalization and increasing links to global markets is increasing competition and subsequent pressure on domestic production. The high human and livestock populations, number of livestock-raising households, and the nature of production in the LMB contribute to emerging infectious disease risks, notably zoonoses; outbreaks and endemic diseases are major production and public health concerns. Mechanization and the introduction of higher productivity genotypes has had varied levels of success impacting yields, costs of production, and disease risks. Increasing concern over and investment in food safety and quality assurance is driving regulatory changes. Agricultural policy and policymaking processes vary widely at sub-national, national, and regional levels but environmental concerns are gaining more weight. Transparency and associated issues of good governance remain a challenge.